Table 7.3.

Geophysical techniques: application, use and limitations within glacial and paraglacial environments

ElectromagneticElectricalSeismicPotential field methods
GPRFrequency domainVery low frequencyERTResistivityInduced polarizationReflectionRefractionMASWMAMMicrogravityMagnetics
Fines-dominated sediments
Coarse-grained sediments and gravels
Sedimentary structures (e.g. bedding)
Fractures and faults
Depth to bedrock
Depth to water table
Sediment and rock properties (e.g. strength)
  • ✓ Optimal method; ∼ sub-optimal method; ✗ not applicable.