Table 4.2.

Subset of global hazards relevant to engineering geology and geomorphology in deserts

Hazard categoryHazard event, process, or form
Global eventNeotectonics; climate change
Meteorological/climateRainstorms; aridity; drought; extreme temperatures; wind
Hill slopesWeathering; rilling and gullying; mass movement
Ephemeral streamsFlash floods; unstable channels; channel slopes; sediment loads; high bedloads; scour; transmission losses
Subsurface waterPiping; limestone, gypsum and clay karst; hydrocompaction; collapsing soils; capillary rise; gysum/anhydrite landforms
Aeolian activityDeflation; lag deposits; dust; sand; mobile landforms (dunes); relict dunes
Aggressive ground conditionsChemical weathering; salt pans, salinas, playas and sabkhas; saline groundwater; swelling/shrinking soils, gypcrusts
Environmental issuesLandscape sensitivity to change; desertification; damage to habitats