Table 4.1.

Natural and human-induced hazards on a global basis

Hazard categoryTypical hazardsResponsibility for investigation in engineering situations
TechnologicalTransport accident; toxic releases and spills; building and structure failure; industrial explosions and fires; nuclear reactor failure; nuclear and biological weapons; redundant ordnanceEngineers of all types
BiologicalEpidemics; animal and plant invasions; forest and grassland firesBiologists of all types
MeteorologicalFrost; snow; hail; windstorm; rainstorm; lightning; drought; heatwave; fogEngineering geomorphologists with input from meteorologists
HydrologicalRiver flood; marine/coastal flood; wave action; sea ice and icebergs; glacial surges and meltwater; groundwater changes over timeEngineering geomorphologists with input from hydrologists, glaciologists, oceanographers and hydrogeologists
GeologicalEarthquakes; volcanoes; erosion and deposition; subsidence and mass movement; geochemical hazardsEngineering geologist with some input from engineering geomorphologists and hydrogeologists